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Until the sixteenth century in many European countries, theater was associated with religious ceremonies presented only at Christmas, Easter and the Epiphany McKendrick 6. Subsequently, theater became a source of entertainment for the general public and 16 Metaphors of Oppression in Lusophone Historical Drama stages were constructed specifically for the performance of such plays. The types of stages varied from country to country, with some being enclosed while others remained open-air venues.
There were seats along the sides of the stage and a pit in front of it where an audience of men, primarily of the lower class, would stand. Lower-class women were segregated to the back of the yard, and wealthier patrons could watch the performance from the windows of nearby houses Wilson and Moir 33— It was in the corrales that the drama of the Spanish Golden Age— the high point of Spanish theater—was performed.
The drama of the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Golden Age featured such universal themes as love, religion and honor in innovative forms such as the comedia Wilson and Moir The comedia is a genre consisting of three acts with a polymetric verse system as well as at least one gracioso, or humorous character Wilson and Moir Historical elements were very much a part of Golden Age drama as playwrights employed history as a source of characters and as a background to explore the above-mentioned topics.
Lope de Vega was extremely prolific, authoring over three hundred dramas. McKendrick 66 Lope de Vega knew what audiences wanted and was talented enough to oblige them with many works. The playwright drew from a variety of sources: from the rustic themes of the Medieval period to the more religious, classical ones of Greek and Roman dramatists McKendrick 66— Lope de Vega also wrote a number of dramas that blended actual historical events and personalities with the theme of honor. The first, El Duque de Viseo ?
The Duke of Viseu , is about a Portuguese duke suspected of treason and unjustly punished for it. In the end the villagers are granted a general pardon, showing how honor is ultimately rewarded. Lope de Vega was well ahead of his time in the choice of subject matter and portrayal of history. In addition to using Spanish history, Cueva drew from Greek and Roman history for inspiration of his work. Wilson and Moir 37 In light of political developments such as the takeover of the Portuguese throne by Spain in , playwrights such as Cueva used history to critique the actions taken by the monarchy.
In La prudencia en la mujer, as well as other works by Tirso, historical events are liberally portrayed. The employment of the history of the ancient Roman empire, for example, endows the history of Spain, considered to be the inheritor of Roman imperial tradition, with a special degree of dignity. He also found theater to be didactic.
The geographic and linguistic proximity of Spain and Portugal figures among the main reasons for this cultural exchange. The Spanish King did, however, leave legislative administration in the hands of the Portuguese Marques, I This situation facilitated travel between Spain and Portugal and reinforced the influence of Spanish Golden Age theater in its neighbor. Rebelo [Antonio Ferreira did not restrict himself to exact historical facts but rather used them according to the objectives and aesthetic necessities that were imposed upon him by the genre].
Dramatists from this era may be said to employ history broadly to accentuate the major themes of love, honor, and religion. In the eighteenth-century, the influence of Spain waned in Portugal as that of Italy and France grew. Italian opera also became increasingly popular, though primarily with the upper classes. The Portuguese kings D. They also contributed to the construction of theaters built specifically for opera. In the Academia da Trindade was built and an Italian opera company invited to perform. The lower classes, on the other hand, were more interested in and had access to the comedic farsas farces and cordel theater that were presented in the Bairro Alto neighborhood of Lisbon.
Vida do Grande D. Historical drama reappeared during the eighteenth century with the Neoclassical literary movement commonly called the Arcadians. One of the Portuguese playwrights who fused historical drama with the Neoclassical tradition was Manuel de Figueiredo — Leonor Teles and her sister, D. Romantic writers also commonly sensed a fascination with the past, particularly the Medieval period.
Alfred Lord Tennyson — of England—better known as a poet—caught the same inspiration in his plays Queen Mary , Harold , and Becket Portuguese writers joined this trend of incorporating the past in fiction and theater. A few years later, Garrett presented at the Teatro de D. Almeida Garrett is not the only Portuguese writer to utilize historical themes. Maria de Lencastre and Martim de Freitas Sancho II Though their fascination with the past was great, their presentation of it did not do justice to the actual events.
Romantics were criticized for their excessive use of archaic language and external description of past settings with little focus on the actual mentality of the period in question.
In Portugal there was a lull in the production of historical dramas during the Realist period; subsequently, the genre once again became popular. The popularization of historical drama coincides with the nationalist fervor of the time, as well as with a saudosista or nostalgic look toward the past. The past was used as a theme at a juncture of Portuguese history when the future was somewhat dim. In the early twentieth century few historical dramas were written.
Subsequently, however, historical themes once again became more prevalent in theater. In the New State there was a high degree of censorship, so plays that were political in nature or could be construed as such were not permitted to be staged. For this reason, it is not until the s that historical themes once again became more prevalent in theater as a critique of the regime. The former was born in Lisbon in He was influenced by Bertolt Brecht and believed that theater could be used to effect positive change in society.
Of his dramas, O Judeu stands out as an exceptional piece for both its content and format.
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Rebello explains that these plays represent history differently than did the nineteenth-century Romantics. Rather than trying to reconstruct history to stir nationalist sentiment or as a colorful background to a love tale, these twentieth-century Portuguese playwrights use their national history to comment upon their present day. The influence of Bertolt Brecht was strong in Portugal, though only one of his works was performed during the Salazar era. A Alma Boa de Se-Tsuan seria Soon Portuguese playwrights began to draw from Brechtian staging and use theater in an attempt to raise social consciousness.
Historical themes in turn were presented in such a way as to highlight the dire conditions of the day. By the s the Portuguese historical drama had evolved substantially from the Golden Age. In retrospect, it is obvious that many influences contributed to the development of the historical drama in Portugal, the theater of foreign countries such as Spain comedia , Italy opera , and Germany Brecht being among the most significant. The playwrights of the Romantic period of the mid-nineteenth century produced the most impressive corpus of historical dramas.
A century later there was a resurgence in the form as playwrights looked for ways to critique the Salazar regime.
It was at this time that the Portuguese court arrived, fleeing the Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian Peninsula, and with it came the establishment of theaters. The production of such dramas did not cease until the mid- to late-nineteenth century, when there was a hiatus for approximately 60 years. One of the principal ways in which they attempted to do this was through the vehicle of theater. Jesuit priests wrote and performed autos, or one-act plays, written in Tupi, Portuguese and Spanish to instruct the Native population and illiterate colonists.
Anchieta was known for his innovation in both the material and presentation of his autos. Adapting the drama to the needs of his audience, he molded and influenced the attitudes of his public.